The term Baja Bug generally refers to a Volkswagen modified to operate on sand dunes and beaches, although other versions of Air-cooled Volkswagens are sometimes modified as well.
Baja Bugs originated in Southern California in the late 1960's as an inexpensive answer to the successful, Volkswagen-based dune buggies of the mid-1960s, especially the Meyers Manx . The building of the first Baja Bug is generally credited to Gary Emory of Parts Obsolete. circa 1968 and the first Baja 1000 race was 1968, while the first fiberglass baja kit (bug eye kit) was not introduced until 1969 by Haven Miller company, In the early days before fiberglass body panels became available, enthusiast and racers simply made their own modification to both the body and mechanicals of a stock VW to develop a machine suited to harsh, off-road environments. The metal fenders and front and rear aprons of the car would be partially cut away to allow more for ground clearance and suspension travel. This came to be know as a "cut baja" More engine power was attained by fitting dual port heads and modifying fuel injection systems from VW type 3 cars to work on the type 1 bug engine. There are few "cut baja" cars known to survive from the early era, which makes them highly prized by car enthusiasts and collectors.
Why the Beetle? Edit
The Beetle was popular in less-developed areas of the world because of its rear-mounted Air-cooled engine, flat floorpan, and rugged Torsion bar suspension. In fact, advertising of the period touted the fact that the Beetle was so watertight that it floated. Those same attributes made the Beetle the perfect choice for the basis of an off-road vehicle as evidenced by the car's success both then and now in the Baja 1000 off-road race.
Basic modifications are simple. A lightweight, shortened Fiberglass front body panel is fitted after the sheetmetal from the trunklid edge forward and rear engine decklid and everything rearward (rear apron and engine compartment) is removed. The rear treatment leaves the engine totally exposed to aid in cooling. A tubular steel cage front and rear bumper is fitted to the body and floorpan for protection of engine and occupants. Shortened fiberglass fenders both front and rear meant removal of the Beetle's distinctive running boards and the likely addition of more tubular steel parts (side bars) in their place. The rugged torsion bar front and rear suspension standard on the Beetle, allows it to withstand the rigors of offroading and the rear ride height to easily be raised slightly and stiffened to make clearance for larger heavy-duty off-road tires and wheels. The taller sidewall tires provide more flexible ride comfort and rocky road ground clearance. The Beetle suspension "stops" can be moved to allow more suspension travel. Longer Shock absorbers for the increase in suspension travel, provide more dampening control over bumps giving more driver control and comfort. some people go as far as getting rid of the torsion bar suspension and put in coilover type springs that mount to a roll cage allowing extreme amounts of travel with a very comfortable ride
The Baja Bug today Edit
Though Baja Bugs have been greatly supplanted in recent years by tube-framed, purpose-built buggies known as Sand rails, due to the slowly dwindling supply of suitable donor cars, they remain a popular choice in desert regions as few beaches in the US are open to vehicular traffic. Many are fitted with highly modified Volkswagen engines and a few homebuilt hybrids have Ford Pinto engine, Chevrolet Corvair, Porsche, Mazda or even Subaru engines. Customized roadgoing Baja Bugs remain fairly popular as well.
Recently, Volkswagen has attempted a revival of the Baja Bug with the Dune concept in 2000.
Types of Baja Bug Edit
Many types of Baja Bug exist however these fall into three main categories. These include 'Racing Class', 'Trailer Queen' and hybrid of the two being called 'Daily Driver'.
The Racing Class Bajas are often referred to by enthusiasts as Class 5 and Class 5/1600 and have sponsor racing decals and a characteristic three number race number clearly marked on the sides, the roof and front. These are most common in North and Central America in dune and desert racing. Rarely are these registered on the road as they usually have very little of the original VW pan and body and generally consist of a tube frame with racing style seats, high horsepower engine and very sturdy transaxle and suspension modifications expanding the track to avoid roll and increase ride height.
The Trailer Queen Baja is a fully engineered off-road Baja that may be registered and used on road but rarely leaves the comfort of a garage and mirror finished floors. This style of Baja would never have been in contact with the elements and is primarily used for the display of off-road automotive parts at car shows. The vehicle is fully functional and may be a mixture or Type 5 and Daily Driver modifications however the paint, tread nodes and chromed exhaust manifolds suggest this vehicle is rarely started and generally towed from location to location.
Daily Drivers are the most common form of Baja vehicle. These are always registered and, as suggested by the name, driven on a regular basis. That is, they can also compete and be shown but are regularly used off-road as well as on. These vehicles are generally low budget with simple modifications but many excellent examples exist that are also driven on a regular basis. Daily drivers are capable of traversing most places 4x4 off-road vehicles are seen due to their light weight, reliable engine and steep approach and exit angles. Daily drivers can negotiate sand, mud and dirt terrain effectively, however, handling in snow and ice conditions can be seriously compromised due to the lighter front end.